Таблица types of education

British Educational System

Name: Stephen Lo
Present address: 23 South Sierra Drive, San Diego, California
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Date of birth: 9/17/70
Education: 1977-84 Millard Fillmore Elementary School, Oakland, Calif. 1984-88 James Garfield High School, Oakland, Calif. 1988-92 College. U.C.L.A., Los Angeles, Calif. Graduated with a B.S. in Business Administration
Employment history: 1987-1991 Camp counselor, Camp Redwoods, Mendocino Country, Calif. Archery and swimming instructor. 1992- present Administrative assistant, Soledad Computers, San Diego
Foreign languages: Chinese – excellent, Spanish – fair
Hobbies: Camping, horse riding

23. Read the text and answer the questions.

1. At what age do children start school in Britain?
2. Is secondary education compulsory for all children?
3. What types of school are there in Britain?
4. What types of schools does a primary school include?
5. How long does a pupil learn at a primary school?
6. What kind of school is a comprehensive school?
7. How long does a pupil learn at a secondary school?
8. When do pupils graduate from school?
9. What can they do after leaving a secondary school? Can they continue their education?
10. What type of education is there after school?
11. What schools are called «public schools”?

The state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment for their studies.

Nine million children attend 35.000 schools in Britain. Education is compulsory from 5 till 16 years. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. In primary school children arc taught the so-called 3R’s: reading, writing and arithmetics.

Most children are taught together, boys and girls in the same class. At 11 most pupils go to secondary schools called comprehensives which accept a wide range of children from all backgrounds and religious and ethnic groups.

There are three types of state secondary schools in Britain. They are: grammar schools (for the most intelligent children), modern schools (for the less intelligent children) and comprehensive schools (for children of all abilities). Grammar schools lead towards higher education, and the others give general or vocational education to prepare students for employment or for further technical education.

The academic year usually begins in September and runs to early July; it has 3 terms, divided by the Christmas and Easter holidays. In addition, all schools have a half-term holiday lasting a few days or a week, in the middle of each term.

Between the ages of 14 and 16 pupils study for their GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) exams. Pupils must take English Language, Maths and Science for GCSE, as well as half GCSE in a foreign language and Technology. In addition, they must also be taught Physical Education, Religious Education and Sex Education, although they do not take exams in these subjects. At 16 pupils take GCSE and then they can leave school if they wish. This is the end of compulsory education.

More ambitious pupils continue with very specialized studies in the sixth form. They remain at school for two years more or at a sixth form college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called A level (advanced level) at 18. You need A level to enter a university. Other 16-year-olds choose to go to a college of further education to study for more practical (vocational) diplomas relating to the world of work, such as hairdressing, typing or mechanics.

Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with A levels from 18. Students study for a degree which takes on average three years of full-time study. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree at a special graduation ceremony.

Compulsory education is free of charge, but some parents prefer to pay for their children to be educated at independent schools. This private sector includes the so-called public schools, some of whose names are known all over the world, for example Eton. Most of these are single-sex boarding schools and students can live there during term time.


Text «Education in Britain» (about the British Educational System)

Тексты про систему образования в разных странах, а именно в России, Великобритании и Америке предлагаются для чтения на заключительном этапе изучения темы «Schooling & Education». Вы уже прочитали текст про систему образования в России на английском языке и повторили слова:

compulsory, primary education, secondary education, comprehensive, ability, entrance exams, specialized schools, profound knowledge, academic subjects, higher education, enter a university, take exams, pass exams, fail exams

Теперь читаем текст про систему образования в Великобритании (Education in Britain). Специфические слова, касающиеся системы образования в Великобритании, выделены красным цветом.

Education in Britain

(text about the British Educational System)

  1. stage — ступень
  2. grammar school — гимназия
  3. national exam — государственный экзамен
  4. General Certificate of Secondary Education — Аттестат об общем среднем образовании
  5. 6th form — шестой класс (соответствует 10-11 классу в российской системе образования)
  6. further education — дальнейшее образование
  7. accept — принимать
  8. graduate from — заканчивать
  9. private school — частная школа
  10. provide education — предоставлять образование
  11. boarding school — школа с проживанием
  12. Oxford and Cambridge — старейшие британские университеты
  13. public school — английская частная школа для аристократии
  14. Eton — известная частная элитная школа
  15. assessment — оценивание

Education in Britain is compulsory from 5 till 16. The first stageis primary school (5-11). Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11. In primary schools pupils are taught the so-called three “R”: reading, writing and arithmetic.

The second stage is secondary school, which children start at 11. Secondary schools are called comprehensive, they are free and take children of all abilities, without entrance exams. There are also grammar schools which take children who pass the 11 plus exams. At 16 pupils take a national exam called GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education or “O” level (Ordinary) and they can leave school if they wish and start working. This is the end of compulsory education. Some 16-year-olds continue their studies in the 6th form ( at school or at a sixth-form college). The 6th form prepares pupils for a national exam called “A” level (advanced) at the age of 18. You need “A” level to enter a university. If you don’t enter a university you can go to college of further education to study more practical things such as hairdressing, typing, cooking etc.

The third stage is further education at university or college. Universities and colleges of higher education accept students with “A” levels. Most students graduate at 21 or 22 and are given their degree. Generally universities award two kinds of degree: the Bachelor’s degree and the Master’s degree. Altogether in Britain there are about 100 universities. The oldest and the most famous of them are Oxford and Cambridge.

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In Britain there are also private schools . They are expensive but considered to provide a better education and good job opportunities. Private schools are boarding schools , where the children actually live in the school.

Some more facts about education in Britain:

  • The academic year in Britain usually begins in September runs to early July; it has three terms, divided by the Christmas and Easter holidays. In addition all schools have a “half-term” holiday lasting for a few days or a week, in the middle of each term.
  • Compulsory education is free.
  1. distance from school — расстояние от школы
  2. religious beliefs — религиозные убеждения
  3. dissatisfaction with the system — неудовлетворенность системой
  4. bulling — запугивание
  5. child’s unwillingness or inability to go to school — нежелание или неспособность учиться
  6. special educational needs — особые образовательные потребности

Подведем итоги информации про систему образования в Великобритании:

  1. There are three stages of education in Britain:
  • the first stage is primary education (5-11). There are infant schools (5-7) and junior school (7-11). In primary schools pupils are taught the so-called three “R”: reading, writing and arithmetic.
  • the second stage is secondary education (11- 18) Two last years (6th form) may be spent in a separate sixth-form college, which concentrates on career training.
  • the third stage is further education at university or college.

2. There is the National Curriculum (государственный учебный план), which was introduced in Britain in 1988. It tells pupils what subjects they have to study, what they must learn and when they have to take assessment tests.

3. There are three types of state secondary schools in Britain:
1) grammar schools (for the most intelligent children)
2) modern schools (for less intelligent children)
3) comprehensive schools ( for children of all abilities, without entrance exams)

Grammar schools lead towards higher education, the others give general education to prepare students for employment.


System of Education in Russia

System of Education in Russia

Education in Russia is a set of study programs which are compiled in accordance with the regulations on the state standard of education. However, the system of education in Russia has its special features which we are going to look closer at in this article.

Education in Russia includes several stages:

  • Pre-school education
  • General secondary education
  • Vocational education
  • Higher education

Pre-school Education

Pre-school education is a first stage in the system of education which is represented by crèches and kindergartens, less frequently by other educational institutions which look after children and provide education according to pre-school education program. Every parent is ensured with a possibility to send their child to one of these institutions.

Pre-school Education

Children can start going to crèches when they are 1-year old, and they can stay there until when they are 3 years old. After that, they go to kindergartens. Children complete their education at kindergartens at the age of 6 or 7. In Russia pre-school education is not compulsory, so parents decide if their children will attend a crèche or a kindergarten or they won’t.

Recently there also appeared pre-schools where children can go at the age of 5. There children learn basic reading and writing skills.

General Secondary Education

According to the law of the Russian Federation, general secondary education includes:

  • Primary general secondary education (from 6 to 10 years of age, 1-4 grades)
  • Basic general secondary education (from 10 to 15 years of age, 5-9 grades)
  • Complete general secondary education (from 15 to 17years of age, 10-11 grades)

When a child turns 6 years old, he/she starts obtaining primary general education. Children can go to a school, gymnasium, or lyceum. Gymnasiums and lyceums are different from schools as they provide advanced training, or they introduce additional study subjects which will be useful for the students who are planning to enter higher educational institutions.

General Secondary Education

After completing primary secondary education, children at the age of 10 undergo basic general education. It lasts for 5 years. After grade 9 students receive certificate of general education which allows them to continue their education at grade 10 at school, gymnasium, or lyceum.

Complete general secondary education is the last stage of general education which lasts for 2 years. Then, at grade 11 students take examinations and receive certificates of complete general secondary education.

Vocational Education

After school children in Russia have a wide choice of educational institutions where they can obtain vocational education, whose aim is to train qualified workers.

After graduating grade 9 or 11, children can enter a technical school or college. There is one feature: if children enter a college or technical school after grade 11, their training will take shorter time, as they have already completed a program of general secondary education at grades 10 and 11.

Vocational Education

In what way a college is different from a technical school?

The level of education at college is considered to be higher than at technical school, as the system of education there is similar to higher education. Technical schools are more specific, and the level of education there is considered to be basic.

Higher Education

In Russia, there is a 3-level higher education:

  • Baccalaureate (4years)

This is a complete higher education. Students who have graduated general secondary school, or those who obtained vocational education can get admitted to bachelor’s course. After completing a bachelor’s program, graduates receive a diploma with their qualification.

  • Specialist (5 years)

Unlike bachelor’s program, after graduating the specialist program, a graduate obtains a specialist diploma.

  • Magistr (6 years)

Master’s program is a second level of higher education. Only students who already hold bachelor’s or specialist’s degrees can do master’s program. Doing a master’s program, you can expand your knowledge and improve your qualification in the profession you have already chosen.

Higher Education

Higher education is a final stage of education in Russia. According to the law of the Russian Federation institutes, universities, and academies are recognized as institutions of higher education.

Institute trains specialists in one sphere, for example, economics, psychology, or medicine. It is its peculiar feature.

University offers a wide range of specialties. At university, you can undergo training in various areas.

Academy, in turn, differs with its narrower set of specialties for one particular industry, for example, agricultural academy, mining academy, economic academy, etc.

There is also an incomplete higher education. Students study at least for two years, although they were not able to complete the full course.

Moscow State University

In conclusion, we would like to mention that the system of education in Russia is organized in the way so any citizen of Russia who has a desire to study is provided with this opportunity. After all, if a person has certain knowledge, they can choose a school and a sphere that are really interested in.

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The Different Types of Education

For the most part, there are various types of education available all over the world. While some school systems in other countries have different practices from ours, generally, there are standards set so that there are equivalents that allow people to continue schooling even in another country.

However, education isn’t limited to the specific types you’d think. Prior to the educational system, we have today, in the earlier days education was limited to noble children who were taught by tutors approved by their parents. Today, there are laws protecting a child’s right to enter school. But still, there are several types of education based on the formal or informal setting of a student’s education to the different levels of education available for different students from preschool to the highest levels of education.

Formal Education

If you’ve been through the current regular way of schooling, be it from a public or private school, you can say that you’ve had a formal education. This is the systematic way where a person attends a school or university and receives training from teachers that are equipped and licensed to teach you what you need to know.

While there are various types of schools (sectarian, non-sectarian, co-ed, all-boys or girls), the fact that you went to a school means that you were taught the same thing other schools teach their students. There may be some differences (for example, a private Catholic school may teach their students about religion while a public school doesn’t), but all schools must adhere to a certain standard of quality based on factors such as how well students do in standardized tests against other schools.

Some schools around the world have different formal education systems, but most schools follow the K-12 program of the United States. In this system, a student starts their education at kindergarten at the age of six and then makes their way through years of education until they reach 12 th grade by the age of 18. From there, they have the option of finding work with their high school diploma or seek further studies. Formal education also encompasses undergraduate and post-graduate studies as long as they follow the systems set by the governing bodies for that country’s educational system.

Informal Education

Informal education refers to the ways children learn outside of the classroom. A child in a traditional formal educational system can also have an informal education. For example, a child can have a formal education during class hours by attending school. After school, they have after-school programs like clubs or team sports that help them learn other skills – this is a kind of informal education. Or if their class takes a field trip to a museum, library, or anywhere educational – this is also considered informal.

Informal education also includes anything as simple as a parent teaching their child in passing. For example, when an adult teaches a child how to tie their shoelaces within five minutes, this is also a form of informal education. Basically, anything that is outside the four walls of a classroom that is taught by someone who isn’t trained to be a teacher can be considered informal education.

Another form of education that can be considered informal is homeschooling. The type of homeschooling children in the United States receive depend on the state laws where they are physically present. While children in states like New York, Vermont, and Pennsylvania require strict requirements for homeschooling like achievement test scores, a curriculum approved by the state, and proof that the child’s parents are qualified to teach, other states like Texas, Alaska, and Iowa do not require parents to inform the state of their decision to homeschool their child nor are there any standards or requirements parents have to comply with.


Non-formal learning is the balance between formal and non-formal education. While there is a form of structured learning, there is no approved curriculum or certification associated with formal learning. At the same time, it’s more structured than informal learning where education takes place spontaneously.

One example of this is swimming lessons for young children, sports programs, Boy and Girl Scouts, adult education courses, sports programs, and seminars. These are meant to improve skills and peak interest and provide all the benefits of both formal and informal learning.

Special Education

Special education (also known as SPED) are classes for students with individual differences and needs and may not be able to cope with the rigid standards of traditional formal education. Contrary to popular belief, this isn’t limited to children with developmental disabilities such as being on the autistic spectrum and can also cater to students with conditions such as dyslexia, ADHD, physical disabilities, and other conditions that may impair their ability to learn in a regular class setting.

Around 2.4 million students in the United States have learning disabilities. To qualify for SPED education, a student needs to have a documented disability and needs SPED to learn general education. However, this doesn’t mean that children with disabilities will be quarantined away from children from regular classes throughout their schooling. In fact, when applicable, SPED students and regular formal schooling students can be in the same classes.


Moving onto the types of education according to the educational level, the first level is preschool. Also known as kindergarten or pre-primary school, this is offered to young children from early childhood before they begin mandatory primary school education. These can be privately operated or publicly operated with a subsidy from the government.

Preschool’s history comes from the fact that, in the mid-18 th century, only children who knew how to read and write were allowed to attend school. This made education inaccessible to children of lower-class families whose mothers were working in factories, so by 1779, the first establishments for caring and educating young children while their parents were away at work were created. Since then, the practice spread around the world.

Preschools come in different terms around the world because there are different standards to when a child should start their education. In some countries, preschools are completely optional; if parents can ensure their child is capable of reading, writing, and other important skills by the age of six or when they are required by law to start elementary school, they can skip preschool altogether. In other countries, however, it is required by law to start a child’s education as early as two years old.

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In the US, daycare and pre-kindergarten are optional for parents who want their kids to get a head start on learning as well as improve their social interaction before they actually start mandatory kindergarten at the age of six.

Elementary School

After kindergarten, students attend elementary school from ages 6 to 13 years old. This part of their education provides fundamental skills such as reading, writing, mathematics, and other general knowledge to prepare them for secondary school.

Secondary Education

This may be divided into lower secondary education (“middle school”) and upper secondary education (“high school”), but some educational systems may just group these into a general high school system. This is one step above primary school as not only do they learn advanced general knowledge from what students are originally taught in elementary, but they can also start learning vocational topics which can be useful either as a jumpstart to their chosen career after high school or as a foundation for tertiary education.

In the United States, students ages 13-18 are required to attend high school. However, if you are 18 years old or older or if you’re still a minor but your parents will consent to it and you comply with the conditions, you can opt to drop out. Simply choosing to leave without warning is considered truancy, which can mean being sent to the juvenile system or criminal charges for your parents.

Another alternative to finishing high school is by taking your General Educational Development tests, also known as your GED. These are tests that prove you have the academic level and thinking capability of someone who would have graduated high school. If you dropped out of high school but want to enter a job position that requires a high school diploma or plan to pursue tertiary education, having a GED is the equivalent of a high school diploma.

Post-Secondary Education

We’ve discussed everything you need to know about post-secondary education in a separate article, so if you want to learn more about continuing studies after high school, you can read about it on the page.

Post-secondary education, also known as tertiary studies and continuing studies, consists of college undergraduate degrees, postgraduate degrees (including graduate school and specialized schools like law school and medical school), vocational schools, and non-degree certificate programs. These are all optional educational paths for those who want to specialize their knowledge in a certain field.

While students aren’t required to take post-secondary education after high school, some career paths (doctor, lawyer, architect, engineer, etc.) require a college diploma. Also, having a diploma or certificate provides graduates with a competitive edge in the job market, though this is not an assurance that they will automatically receive job offers after graduation.

This is just a brief list of the kinds of education available. If you want to know more about the possible educational paths you want to take for yourself or for your child, it’s best to talk to a teacher or guidance counselor and see what the best options are for your or your child’s career goals.


Английский язык. 10 класс

Конспект урока

Английский язык, 10 класс

Урок №14. Types of schools

Краткое описание:

Урок посвящен введению новых лексических единиц и закреплению их в речи, а также тренировке навыков чтения и аудирования.

Перечень вопросов, рассматриваемых в теме:

Do we need schools? How many different types of schools are there? Are there any unusual schools in the world? Can a person not attend school?

Глоссарий по теме:

Almost every child aged 7 and higher has attended school. School education in our country usually starts when a child is 7 years old and finishes 11 years later, when a person is 18. There are different types of schools such as private and state schools. Let’s have a look at some words that can help you talk about education and schools.

boarding school – школа-интернат, пансион,

co-educational school – школа совместного обучения,

dread – бояться, страшиться, трепетать от страха

home schooling – домашнее обучение,

private school — частная школа,

public transport – общественный транспорт,

science lab –научная лаборатория,

single-sex school – школа раздельного обучения,

specialist school – профильная школа,

state school – государственная школа,

catch up with — догонять,

take part in – принимать участие в,

earn a living – зарабатывать на жизнь,

sit an exam – сдавать экзамен,

subjects — школьные предметы,

Основная и дополнительная литература по теме:

Афанасьева О.В., Дули Д., Михеева И.В., Оби Б., Эванс В. Английский язык 10 класс: Учебник для общеобразовательных учреждений. 10 класс. – М.: Просвещение, 2017. с. 46-47.

Теоретический материал для самостоятельного изучения:

Hello, and welcome to today’s episode of “The Most Unusual. Global Edition”. Today we are going to talk about schools. There are many different types of schools functioning around the world. Let’s have a closer look at the most unusual schools.

Number 1 is the “Train Platform School” in India. It was founded by a school teacher who noticed small children near the railway station when she was going to work by train. These children were extremely poor and were either begging for money or stealing it. Their living conditions were extremely awful. She decided to start educating these children and that was the beginning of the “Train Platform School”.

Number 2 is the Makoko Floating School. The idea behind creating this kind of school is quite simple. Because of constant flooding of the area, it was almost impossible to create a permanent building for a school there, that’s why it was decided to create a floating school.

Almost every child aged 7 and higher has attended school. School education in our country usually starts when a child is 7 years old and finishes 11 years later, when a person is 18. There are different types of schools such as private and state schools. Let’s have a look at some words that can help you talk about education and schools.

boarding school – школа-интернат, пансион,

co-educational school – школа совместного обучения,

common – обычный, общий,

dread – бояться, страшиться, трепетать от страха

home schooling – домашнее обучение,

private school — частная школа,

public transport – общественный транспорт,

science lab –научная лаборатория,

single-sex school – школа раздельного обучения,

specialist school – профильная школа,

state school – государственная школа,

catch up with — догонять,

take part in – принимать участие в,

earn a living – зарабатывать на жизнь,

sit an exam – сдавать экзамен,

subjects — школьные предметы,

Разбор решения заданий тренировочного модуля.